Congregation at Duke Chapel

The Visual and Material Cultures of Protestantism

 

The Visual and Material Cultures of Protestantism

presentation at Adult Forum by Sonia Hazard
Ph.D. candidate in Religion, Duke University
January 27, 2013

I. Sixteenth Century: The Protestant Reformation

drawing of removing decoration from interior of church Franz Hogenberg, engraving of Dutch iconoclasm, 1566, Cologne, Germany paintings behind an altar table

detail of crucifixtion section of painting Lucas Cranach the Elder, altarpiece and predella, 1547, Wittenberg, Germany (Lutheran) drawing of raising Lazarus from his tombAugustin Hirschvogel, etching of the raising of Lazarus, 1545, Vienna, Austria

II. Seventeenth Century: Puritan Restraint

photo of gravestone with soul effigy William Mumford, gravestone with soul effigy, 1697, Newport, RI (Puritan) photo of gravestone with soul effigyAssorted soul effigy gravestones, ca. 1650-1750, New England (Puritan)

photo of gravestone with soul effigy

photo of gravestone with soul effigy

photo of gravestone with soul effigy

photo of gravestone with soul effigy

photo of gravestone with soul effigy

photo of gravestone with soul effigyJoshua Lincoln, colorist, Old Ship Meetinghouse views, 1682, Hingham, MA (Puritan)

photo of church exterior

photo of church interior

III. Eighteenth Century: Moravian Visual Piety

painting of people paying homage to Christ Johann Valentin Haidt, “First Fruits,” 1747, Herrnhut, Germany (Moravian) painting of people holding Christ's corpse Johann Valentin Haidt, “Lamentation over Christ’s Body,” 1758, Bethlehem, PA (Moravian) painting of Thomas' hand in Christ's side Johann Valentin Haidt, “Thomas Doubting,” 1758, Bethlehem, PA (Moravian) engraving of Moravian prostration engraving of Moravian foot washing J. Rod. Holzhath Sculprit, copperplate engravings of “Prostration” and “Pedalavium” from the Zeremonienbüchlein, 1757, Germany (Moravian) Moravian side wound art held in palm of hand

Moravian side wound art

Moravian side wound art

Moravian side wound art Assorted side wound cards in watercolor, ca. 1730, Herrnhut, Germany (Moravian) Moravian embroideryMariane von Watteville, side wound devotional watercolor and needlework, ca. 1750, Herrnhut, Germany (Moravian)

IV. Nineteenth Century: The Flowering of Protestant Visual Culture

Shakers

visions of the heavenly sphere (4) Hannah Cohoon, “A Bower of Mulberry Trees” ink and watercolor spirit drawing, 1854, Pittsfield, MA (Shaker) visions of the heavenly sphere (3) “Heavenly Tree,” ink and watercolor spirit drawing, 1855, Pittsfield, MA (Shaker) many symbols, non-representational artWatercolor trance drawing, ca. 1850, Pittsfield, MA (Shaker)

Mass Reproduction and the Power of Persuasion

title page of Christ the Only Refuge from the Wrath to Come tract

photo of title page of a tract

photo of image of father and son with church in background

photo of image in tract against Fashionable Amusements

photo of image in tract Account of Abigail Hutchinson

photo of title page of The Autumn Cross

Alexander Anderson, assorted American Tract Society wood engravings, ca. 1820s and 30s, New York photo of title page of The Prize

photo of image of The Happy Family George Gilbert, assorted American Sunday-School Union wood engravings, ca. 1820s and 30s, Philadelphia image of divine revelation being spread by pamphlets, etc. “Certificate of Contribution” wood engraving, American Tract Society, 1849, New York photo of title page of Bible

photo of open Bible with illustration

photo of page of Bible with illustration

photo of open Bible with many illustrations John Alexander Adams, electrotyped engravings from the Harper and Brothers Illuminated Bible, 1846 [1843 – 1866], New York painting of Jesus on the Cross Currier and Ives, “Jesus on the Cross / El Salvador del Mundo” lithograph, 1872, New York painting of John baptizing JesusCurrier and Ives, “Baptism of Jesus Christ” lithograph, ca. 1870, New York

paper form for birth and baptism records Currier and Ives, “Record of Birth and Baptism” lithograph, 1866, New York Currier and Ives, “The Autumn Cross” lithograph, ca. 1870, New York drawing of Papal crocodiles attacking Americans Thomas Nast, “The American River Ganges” in Harper’s Weekly, 1871 (Anti-Catholicism) cartoon of Uncle Sam standing outside the door of a nunnery

title page of The Shocking Fate of Female Protestant Converts

title page of The Shocking Fate of Female Protestant Converts Images from nativist convent exposés, ca. 1830-1845, London and Boston (Anti-Catholicism) cartoon about papal influence

men striking another man Abolitionist engraving “Whipping a Slave,” American Tract Society, ca. 1850 illustrations of the Visions of Daniel and JohnJ.V. Himes, Millerite prophecy chart, 1843 (Millerism/Adventism)

God in Nature

painting of landscape in the Catskills Thomas Cole, “Lake with Dead Trees (Catskills),” 1826 (Episcopalian) painting of View in the White Mountains Thomas Cole, “View in the White Mountains,” 1827 (Episcopalian) painting of beautiful landscape George Inness, “Passing Clouds,” 1876 (Swedenborgian) painting of The Trout Brook George Inness, “Trout Brook,” 1891 (Swedenborgian) photo of cover of The Home Book of the Picturesque

photo of title page of The Home Book of the PicturesqueHome Book of the Picturesque steelplate engravings, 1852 Frontispiece from geography schoolbook, 1885

Photography

photos of person in native dress, then in American suit and tie Before-and-after photograph of Tom Torlino (Navajo), ca. 1880, Carlisle, PA photos of person in native dress, then in American wedding dressBefore-and-after photography of Woxie Haury (Cheyenne), 1897, Pacific Northwest

V. Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries: The Battle of Kitsch and Highbrow

Hollywood Religion

photo of Aimee Semple McPherson Aimee Semple McPherson performance photographs, ca. 1910-1935, Los Angeles, CA (Pentecostal) photo of Aimee on a motorcycle photo of Angelus Temple Postcard of Angelus Temple, ca. 1920, Los Angeles, CA (Pentecostal) photo of magazine cover Copy of The Bridal Call, 1925, Aimee Semple McPherson, editor, Los Angeles, CA (Pentecostal) photo of magazine cover

Fundamentalists

image of man bowing before a statue of a chimpanzee E.J. Pace, “Ancestor Worship,” 1922 (Fundamentalist) image of men stepping down stairs of fallible Bible, no miracles ... E.J. Pace, “The Descent of the Modernists,” 1922 (Fundamentalist) cartoon of Judgment scene cartoon of Mark 4:22 cartoon of opening a box of tracts Jack Chick, Assorted Tracts, 1961 – present (Fundamentalist) cartoon of the Beast

painting of Christ surrounded by human representatives Jon McNaughton, “One Nation Under God,” 2009, Utah (Tea Party Mormon) painting of President Obama holding a flaming ConstitutionJon McNaughton, “One Nation Under Socialism,” 2012, Utah (Tea Party Mormon)

The Gentle Art of Warner Sallman

painting of Head of Christ Warner Sallman, Head of Christ, 1940 (based on 1924 drawing) head of Christ on case of tape measure

head of Christ on jewelryWarner Sallman, Head of Christ reproductions on tape measure and brooch, ca. 1950

“Respectable” Protestants

photo of interior of hall in Boston Public Library

 _ _ _ _ _ John Singer Sargent, “Triumph of Religion” mural cycle, Boston Public Library, 1895-1919 photo of Mark Rothko painting Mark Rothko, “No. 8,” 1952 (praised by Alfred Barr Jr., Presbyterian) photo of Mark Rothko painting Mark Rothko, Rothko Gallery, featuring “No. 61” in rust blue, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA an Archie cartoon

an Archie cartoon

an Archie cartoon

an Archie cartoon

Race and Gender

painting of African American bearded Jesus Fred Carter, “Jesus Praying in the Garden,” 1987 painting of Jesus with dreadlocks Dreadlock Jesus painting of Jesus in cross-legged pose Buddha Jesus the Pink Nun website

the Pink Nun website

photo of sculpture of female on cross Edwina Sandys, “Christa,” 1975


Further Reading

Koerner, Joseph Leo. The Reformation of the Image.Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2008.

McDannell, Colleen. Material Christianity: Religion and Popular Culture in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Morgan, David. Protestants and Pictures: Religion, Visual Culture, and the Age of American Mass Production. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Promey, Sally M. “Pictorial Ambivalence and American Protestantism.” In Crossroads: Art and Religion in American Life, edited by Alberta Arthurs and Glenn Wallach, 189–231. First Edition. New York: The New Press, 2001.

? [ Where should I be placed in the sequence above ] ?

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painting of mountain?? Frontispiece from geography schoolbook, 1885 ??